Christopher X J. Jensen
Associate Professor, Pratt Institute

Works Cited

Below is a list of all of the works that I reference on this site, with backlinks [in square brackets] that bring you to the pages and posts where the citations occur.

Alphabetical links to last names of first authors:
A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L / M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / U / V / W / X / Y / Z


Aagaard, Jan E., John H. Willis, and Patrick C. Phillips. 2006. Relaxed Selection Among Duplicate Floral Regulatory Genes in Lamiales. Journal of Molecular Evolution 63:493-503.

Looking at polyploid plants in the Lamiales order, this study detects the relaxation of purifying selection by showing an increase in the ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions in a couple of paralog genes.

Alexander, Richard D. 1985. A Biological Interpretation of Moral Systems. Zygon 20:3-20.


Andras, Peter, John Lazarus, and Gilbert Roberts. 2007. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:240. [1]

Modeling paper showing that harsher environments increase the likelihood that cooperation will prevail in communities of self-interested individuals.

Archetti, Marco. 2009a. The volunteer’s dilemma and the optimal size of a social group. Journal of Theoretical Biology 261:475-480. [1, 2]

Archetti, Marco. 2009b. Cooperation as a volunteer’s dilemma and the strategy of conflict in public goods games. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22:2192–2200. [1]

Arditi, Roger, and Lev R Ginzburg. 1989. Coupling in predator-prey dynamics: ratio-dependence. Journal of Theoretical Biology 139:311-326. [1]

Synthesized the previously-published ideas of Arditi and Ginzburg that the functional response of predator-prey models ought to be a function of the ratio between prey and predator abundances rather than simply a function of prey abundance.

Avise, John C. and Francisco J. Ayala. 2007. In the light of evolution I: Adaptation and complex design. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:8563-8566.

Avise, John C. and Francisco J. Ayala. 2009. In the light of evolution III: Two centuries of Darwin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:9933-9938.

Avise, John C. and Francisco J. Ayala. 2010. In the light of evolution IV: The human condition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8897-8901.

Avise, John C., Stephen P. Hubbell, and Francisco J. Ayala. 2008. In the light of evolution II: Biodiversity and extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:11453-11457.

Axelrod, Robert M. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books. [1,2]

Ayala, Francisco J. 2009. Darwin and the scientific method. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:10033-10039.

Ayala, Francisco J. 2010a. The difference of being human: Morality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:9015-9022.

Ayala, Francisco J. 2010b. Darwin’s explanation of design: From natural theology to natural selection. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 10:840-843.

Ayala, Francisco J. and John C. Avise. 2009a. Darwin at 200. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:2475-2476.

Ayub, Qasim, Bryndis Yngvadottir, Yuan Chen, Yali Xue, Min Hu, Sonja C. Vernes, Simon E. Fisher, and Chris Tyler-Smith. 2013. FOXP2 Targets Show Evidence of Positive Selection in European Populations. American Journal of Human Genetics 92:696-706.

Using a novel genomic-data-screening algorithm, this study looked for signs of selection on genes regulated by FOXP2 in African, Asian, and European populations. Only the European populations showed signs of positive selection on the downstream genes considered. What this means is difficult to determine, as the functions of these downstream genes are either unknown or poorly understood.

[return to top]


Bamshad, Michael J. and Steve E. Olson. 2003. Does Race Exist? Scientific American December, p. 78-85. [1]

Bastolla, Ugo, Miguel A. Fortuna, Alberto Pascual-García, Antonio Ferrera, Bartolo Luque and Jordi Bascompte. 2009. The architecture of mutualistic networks minimizes competition and increases biodiversity. Nature 458:1018-1020. [1]

Bekoff, Marc, and Jessica Pierce. 2009. Wild justice: the moral lives of animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [1]

Berry, John W. and James Georgas. 2009. An Ecocultural Perspective on Cultural Transmission: The Family across Cultures. Pages 95-125 in Cultural Transmission: Psychological, Developmental, Social, and Methodological Aspects, edited by Ute Schönpflug. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. [1]

Explains the ecocultural perspective, which considers cultural transmission as a product of individual- and population-level interactions. Also presents an analysis of how family connectedness varies across countries with different levels of affluence, education, and agricultural lifestyles. Chief finding is that families from agricultural societies with lower affluence and access to education tend to be more closely connected, which suggests that the strength of vertical cultural transmission may be stronger in these communities.

Biello, David. 2011. The False Promise of BiofuelsScientific American August, p. 58-65. [1]

Bingham, Paul M. 1999. “Human uniqueness: A general theory.” Quarterly Review of Biology 74(2): 133-169. [1, 2]

Bingham, Paul M. 2000. “Human evolution and human history: A complete theory.” Evolutionary Anthropology 9(6): 248-257. [1, 2]

Blackmore, Susan. 2000. The Power of Memes. Scientific American October, p. 64-73. [1]

Blaustein, Andrew R., John M. Romansic, Joseph M. Kiesecker, and Audrey C. Hatch. 2003. Ultraviolet radiation, toxic chemicals and amphibian population declines. Diversity and Distributions 9: 123–140. [1]

Boehnke, Klaus, Andreas Hadjar, and Dirk Baier. 2009. Value Transmission and Zeitgeist Revisited. Pages 441-459 in Cultural Transmission: Psychological, Developmental, Social, and Methodological Aspects, edited by Ute Schönpflug. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. [1]

Using scores on the survey of Hierarchical Self Interest (HSI) as their cultural metric, these authors showed that the modal cultural value (the “zeitgeist“) does not have a strong impact on the congruence of parent-offspring values unless the extremity of parental values are considered. For parents with values close to the zeitgeist, HSI parent-offspring correlations are low. But for parents with values that deviate significantly from the mainstream, parent-offspring correlations were much higher, suggesting that parents actively attempt to preserve values that are at odds with modal societal values.

Bourne, Joel K. 2007. Green Dreams. National Geographic October, p. 38-59. [1]

Bowles, Samuel, and Herbert Gintis. 2011. A cooperative species: human reciprocity and its evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [1]

Boyd, Robert and Peter J. Richerson. 2005. Solving the Puzzle of Human Cooperation, In: Evolution and Culture, Stephen C. Levinson (editor). MIT Press, Cambridge MA. p. 105–132.

Boyd, Robert and Peter J. Richerson. 2005. The Origin and Evolution of Cultures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Boyd, Robert and Peter J. Richerson. 2009. Voting with your feet: Payoff biased migration and the evolution of group beneficial behavior. Journal of Theoretical Biology 257:331-339.

Boyd, Robert and Peter J. Richerson. 2010. Transmission coupling mechanisms: cultural group selection. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365:3787-3795.

Borrelli, Jonathan J., Stefano Allesina, Priyanga Amarasekare, Roger Arditi, Ivan Chase, John Damuth, Robert D. Holt, Dmitrii O. Logofet, Mark Novak, Rudolf P. Rohr, Axel G. Rossberg, Matthew Spencer, J. Khai Tran, Lev R. Ginzburg. Selection on stability across ecological scales. 2015. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 7:417–425. [1]

An important review introducing the idea of “nonadaptive selection” on systems of various complexity. Makes the argument that we need to look across all scales of ecology in order to understand how the stability property of systems influences the evolutionary process.

Burghardt, Gordon M. 2005. The Genesis of Animal Play: Testing the Limits. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. [1, 2]

Bryant, Edwin H., and David H. Reed. 1999. Fitness Decline under Relaxed Selection in Captive Populations. Conservation Biology 13:665-669.

Houseflies were released from selection on fecundity in later life by only being allowed to reproduce early in life (so there was no late-life reproductive competition), leading to decrease in later-life fecundity in successive generations.

Burt, Austin and Robert Trivers. 2008. Genes in Conflict: The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements. Harvard University Press (Cambridge). [1]

[return to top]


Cheney, Dorothy L., Liza R. Moscovice, Marlies Heesen, Roger Mundry, and Robert M. Seyfarth. 2010. Contingent cooperation between wild female baboons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:9562-9566.

Chiyo, Patrick I., Vincent Obanda, and David K. Korir. 2015. Illegal tusk harvest and the decline of tusk size in the African elephant. Ecology and Evolution 5:5216-5229.

Comparing the tusk size of elephants observed in the late-1960’s to elephants observed in the mid-1990’s, these researchers found a decrease in tusk size of both males and females following a period of intense poaching.

Choudhury, Ananyo, Scott Hazelhurst, Ayton Meintjes, Ovokeraye Achinike-Oduaran, Shaun Aron, Junaid Gamieldien, Mahjoubeh Jalali Sefid Dashti, Nicola Mulder, Nicki Tiffin, and Michèle Ramsay. 2014. Population-specific common SNPs reflect demographic histories and highlight regions of genomic plasticity with functional relevance. BMC Genomics 15:437.

Looking at regional sequence data derived from the 1000 Genomes Project database, this study uncovered common population-specific variants found in different geographical populations. This variation is not distributed randomly throughout the genome, suggesting that some regions of the genome are more likely to retain variation than others. The study found no evidence that variation was selected for, suggesting that much of the observed variation results from founder effects or other non-selective evolutionary mechanisms.

Cohen, Dov, Richard E. Nisbett, Brian F. Bowdle, and Norbert Schwarz. 1996. Insult, Aggression, and the Southern Culture of Honor: An “Experimental Ethnography”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 7:945-960.

In this classic study which inspired the book Culture of Honor, the authors demonstrated that cultural origin (Northern or Southern American) impacted the cognitive, emotional, physiological, and behavioral reactions of men who were subjected to a personal insult. This study demonstrates that cultural origin can play a profound role behavioral patterns; it also established that some cultures maintain a conception of “honor” that appear to utilize expected and implied threat to dis-incentivize exploitative and/or selfish behavior.

Conover, David O. and Hannes Baumann. 2009. The role of experiments in understanding fishery-induced evolution. Evolutionary Applications 2:276–290. doi:10.1111/j.1752-4571.2009.00079.x.

This review article discusses the importance of experiments designed to explore the evolutionary impacts of size-selective predation of fish by humans. The article also discusses some of the limitations and risks associated with trying to scale up the findings of laboratory experiments to better understand our impacts on the genetic evolution of wild fisheries.

[return to top]


Dawkins, Richard. 1976. The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press. [1, 2]

Makes the argument that the proper way to conceptualize the evolutionary process is to think of all alleles at each gene locus as competing to be replicated (a behavior that Dawkins normatively labels “selfish”). Advocates the idea that recombination makes it reasonable to model each gene locus as an independently-evolving entity rather than as part of a community of genes on a chromosomes. Also the book that introduced the idea of a meme and suggested that the process of cultural evolution could be directly analogous to the process of biological evolution.

Deacon, Terrance W. 2010. A role for relaxed selection in the evolution of the language capacity. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 107:9000-9006.

Dean, Christopher, Meave G. Leakey, Donald Reid, Friedemann Schrenk, Gary T. Schwartz, Christopher Stringer, and Alan Walker. 2001. Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Nature 414:628-631.

This study of the enamel growth patterning of different hominids suggests that even fairly recent species such as Homo erectus lacked the longer developmental periods typical of modern humans and their nearest relatives (for example, Neanderthals). This suggests that the adaptive value of elongated childhood and adolescence only emerged recently in the hominid lineages.

Decety, Jean, Jason M. Cowell, Kang Lee, Randa Mahasneh, Susan Malcolm-Smith, Bilge Selcuk, and Xinyue Zhou. 2015. The Negative Association between Religiousness and Children’s Altruism across the World. Current Biology 25:1-5.

This study purports to show that children who are raised in religious households are less altruistic and more judgmental than their peers raised in non-religious households. However, this study’s results are likely confounded by covariance between the regional culture of participants and their religious affiliation.

Diekmann, A. 1985. Volunteer’s dilemma. Journal of Conflict Resolution 29:605-610. [1]

Diekmann, A. 1993. Cooperation in an asymmetric volunteer’s dilemma game theory and experimental evidence. International Journal of Game Theory 22:75-85. [1]

de Waal, Frans B.M.. 1999. Is human behavior determined by genetics or by environment? It may be time to abandon the dichotomy. Scientific American December:94-99. [1]

Makes the argument that the “nature/nurture” dichotomy fundamentally misunderstands what drives phenotypes. Mostly focused on humans, this article discusses how genes and environment interact to produce phenotype, and how failing to appreciate this interaction can lead to erroneous — and potentially harmful — assumptions about human nature.

de Waal, Frans B.M.. 2009. The Age of Empathy. Three Rivers Press. [1, 2]

Dobbs, David and Kitra Cahana. 2011. Beautiful Brains. National Geographic Magazine 220(4):36-59.

Provides a visual and textual overview of evolutionary theories explaining adolescence, with a focus on the idea that adolescence is a developmental period shaped by evolution to allow a child to live independently of her parents. Focuses on then-recent research demonstrating that the adolescent brain is still undergoing dramatic changes in its pattern of synaptic connectivity. Suggests that most adolescent behaviors are adaptive because they prepare the adolescent for a future life in the social environment of peers.

Duell, Natasha, Grace Icenogle, and Laurence Steinberg. 2016. Adolescent Decision Making and Risk Taking. Pages 263-284 in Child Psychology: A Handbook of Contemporary Issues, Third Edition, edited by Lawrence Balter and Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda. New York (NY): Routledge.

Discusses a variety of theories of adolescent risk-taking, including the “Dual Systems Perspective” that explains risky behavior as the combined result of increased sensation seeking and inadequately-developed impulse control in the adolescent years.

Dunbar, Robin I. M. 1993. Coevolution of neocortical size, group size and language in humans. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:681–735. [1]

[return to top]


Eldredge, Niles. 2004. Why We Do It: Rethinking Sex and the Selfish Gene. W.W. Norton and Company.

Ellis, Bruce J., Marco Del Giudice, Thomas J. Dishion, Aurelio José Figueredo, Peter Gray, Vladas Griskevicius, Patricia H. Hawley, W. Jake Jacobs, Jenée James, Anthony A. Volk, and David Sloan Wilson. 2012. The Evolutionary Basis of Risky Adolescent Behavior: Implications for Science, Policy, and Practice. Developmental Psychology 48:598–623.

Posits an evolutionary alternative to psychological models of “developmental pathology” that explain risky adolescent behaviors. The evolutionary model presented suggests that much of adolescent risk-taking is an evolved behavioral response to the transition to adulthood and to the environment in which the adolescent was raised. Uncertain and under-resourced environments may elicit more risky strategies that make sense from an evolutionary perspective. The authors suggest that interventions designed to reduce high-risk adolescent behaviors must take into consideration both our evolved developmental patterns and the effect of our culturally-constructed environments on behavioral choices.

Engh, Anne L., Rebekah R. Hoffmeier, Robert M. Seyfarth, and Dorthy L. Cheney. 2009. O brother, where art thou? The varying influence of older siblings in rank acquisition by female baboons. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 64:97-104.

[return to top]


Foster, Kevin R. 2006. The Phoenix effect. Nature 441:291-292.

Foster, Kevin R. and Hanna Kokko. 2006. Cheating can stabilize cooperation in mutualisms. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 273:2233-2239.

Foster, Kevin R., Katie Parkinson, and Christopher R.L. Thompson. 2006a. What can microbial genetics teach sociobiology? Trends in Genetics 23:74-80.

Foster, Kevin R., Tom Wenseleers, and Francis L.W. Ratnieks. 2006b. Kin selection is the key to altruism. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:57-60.

Foster, Kevin R. and Joao Xavier. 2007. Cooperation: Bridging Ecology and Sociobiology. Current Biology 17:R319-R321.

Fryxell, John M., Anna Mosser, Anthony R.E. Sinclair, and Craig Packer. 2007. Group formation stabilizes predator–prey dynamics. Nature 449:1041-1044. [1, 2]

Fu, Wenqing and Joshua M. Akey. 2013. Selection and Adaptation in the Human Genome. Annual Review of Genomics & Human Genetics 14:467–489. [1]

Broad review of how next-generation sequencing technologies have impacted our ability to detect adaptive evolution in human populations. Provides a clear overview of how different forms of selection generate genetic signatures, reviews a number of classic cases of detecting these signatures, and assesses the power and limitations of current approaches.

Goldman, Emma. 1931. Living My Life. New York: Knopf. [1]

[return to top]


Glenn, Jules and Herbert Urbach. 1981. Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Action in Adolescence. Pages 259-282 in Clinical Psychoanalysis, Volume III, edited by Shelly Orgel and Bernard D. Fine. New York (NY): Jason Aronson.

Using a Freudian approach, this chapter discusses how to distinguish adaptive from non-adaptive behavior in adolescents. It asserts that adolescent rebellious behavior can be adaptive in that it can contribute to the creation of novel culture or help the adolescent gain “newly-achieved cognitive abilities”, even if the behavior appears non-adaptive in the short term. Does not go so far as to see cultural enrichment of the adolescent as the ultimate outcome of adolescent rebellion, but the chapter does explore the proximate mechanisms that might lead to that cultural enrichment.

Gould, Stephen Jay. 1990. Wonderful life: the Burgess Shale and the nature of history. W.W. Norton & Company. [1]

Gould, Stephen Jay and Richard C. Lewontin. 1979. The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (Biology) 205:581-598. [1, 2]

Greengross, G., & Miller, Geoffrey F. (2008). Dissing oneself versus dissing rivals: Effects of status, personality, and sex on the short-term and long-term attractiveness of self-deprecating and other-deprecating humor. Evolutionary Psychology 6:393-408. [1]

Grimm, Volker, Uta Berger, Finn Bastiansen, Sigrunn Eliassen, Vincent Ginot, Jarl Giske, John Goss-Custard, Tamara Grand, Simone K. Heinz, Geir Huse, Andreas Huth, Jane U. Jepsen, Christian Jørgensen, Wolf M. Mooij, Birgit Müller, Guy Pe’er, Cyril Piou, Steven F. Railsback, Andrew M. Robbins, Martha M. Robbins, Eva Rossmanith, Nadja Rüger, Espen Strand, Sami Souissi, Richard A. Stillman, Rune Vabø, Ute Visser, and Donald L. DeAngelis. 2006. A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models. Ecological Modelling 198:115-126.

Grimm, Volker, Uta Berger, Donald L. DeAngelis, J. Gary Polhill, Jarl Giske and Steven F. Railsback. 2010. The ODD protocol: A review and first update. Ecological Modelling 221:2760-2768.

Gunz, Philipp, Simon Neubauer, Bruno Maureille, and Jean-Jacques Hublin. 2010. Brain development after birth differs between Neanderthals and modern humans. Current Biology 20: R921-922. [1]

Gutmann, Mathias. 2014. The Limits of Sociobiology: Is There a Sociobiological Explanation of Culture? Pages 183-197 in Reflecting on Darwin, edited by Eckart Voigts, Barbara Schaff, and Monika Pietrzak-Franger. Burlington (VT): Ashgate.

Argues against Dawkins’ memetic explanation of cultural evolution using a variety of philosophical parlor tricks, the most egregious of which suggests that Dawkins’ idea (that ideas evolve due to a mindless evolutionary process) cannot be true because of his own intention (to come up with a theory that explains the evolution of culture). A great example of poorly-conceived criticism of both selfish gene and memetic theory (which is not to say that valid criticisms are not ripe for the picking).

[return to top]


Hamilton, William D. 1964. The Genetical Evolution of Social Behaviour, I. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:1-16. [1]

Hazzouri, Khaled M., Juan S. Escobar, Rob W. Ness, L. Killian Newman, April M. Randle, Susan Kalisz, and Stephen I. Wright. 2013. Comparative Population Genomics in Collinisia Sister Species Reveals Evidence for Reduced Effective Population Size, Relaxed Selection, and Evolution of Biased Gene Converstion with an Ongoing Mating System Shift. Evolution 67:1263-1278.

This study makes a genomic comparison of two sister species (Collisinia linearis, an outcrossing species, and Collisinia rattanii, a selfing species). Among other findings, this comparison reveals a higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous polymorphisms in the selfing species, evidence for relaxed selection.

Henrich, Joseph, Robert Boyd, and Peter J. Richerson. 2008. Five Misunderstandings About Cultural Evolution. Human Nature 19:119-137.

Hernandez, Ryan D., Joanna L. Kelley, Eyal Elyashiv, S. Cord Melton, Adam Auton, Gilean McVean, 1000 Genomes Project, Guy Sella, Molly Przeworski. 2011. Classic Selective Sweeps Were Rare in Recent Human Evolution. Science 331:920-924. [1]

Looking an early subsample of the 1000 Genomes project, this study looked for evidence of classic selective sweeps in recent (~250,000 year) human evolution. They did not find that classic selective sweeps were common; patterns of diversity observed in the human genome may result from background selection and/or from selection on standing variation in polygenic traits.

Hill, Kim R., Robert S. Walker, Miran Božičević, James Eder, Thomas Headland, Barry Hewlett, A. Magdalena Hurtado, Frank Marlowe, Polly Wiessner, and Brian Wood. 2011. Co-Residence Patterns in Hunter-Gatherer Societies Show Unique Human Social Structure. Science 331:1286-1289. [1]

Hixon, Mark A. 2008. Carrying Capacity. Pages 528-530 in Encyclopedia of Ecology, vol. 1, edited by S.E. Jørgensen and B.D. Fath. Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier Press.

This encyclopedia entry provides a basic description of how the concept of carrying capacity is conceived of in both basic and applied ecology. It describes how variation and confusion in the way carrying capacity is defined, combined with difficulties in estimating the carrying capacity of real populations, makes the concept of questionable value.

Hölldobler, Bert and Edward O. Wilson. 2008. The Superorganism. W.W. Norton & Company (New York). [1]

Hunt, Brendan G., Lino Ometto, Yannick Wurm, DeWayne Shoemaker, Soojin V. Yi, Laurent Keller, and Michael A. D. Goodisman. 2011. Relaxed selection is a precursor to the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108:15936-15941.

By comparing two distantly-related hymenoptera species, these researchers were able to demonstrate that genes that were differentially expressed in different castes — the genes responsible for phenotypic plasticity in these species — we genes that had experienced a relaxation of selection. This suggests that relaxation of selection may be implicated in the diversification of a particular gene’s functions.

[return to top]


Igra, Vivien and Charles E. Irwin Jr. 1996. Theories of Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior. Pages 35-51 in Handbook of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior, edited by Ralph J. DiClemente, William B. Hansen, and Lynn E. Ponton. New York (NY): Springer Science & Business Media. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4899-0203-0_3.

Focuses on “non-normative” risk-taking in adolescence, in other words novel behaviors that pose a significant short- or long-term health risk. Acknowledges that risk-taking is a normal part of adolescent development. Reviews the “biopsychosocial model” of adolescence, which suggests that there is an interplay between the timing of developmental transition to adolescence, adolescent behaviors, and social development. Focuses mostly on adolescence as a means of achieving adult status.

[return to top]


Jacquet, Jennifer, Kristin Hagel, Christoph Hauert, Jochem Marotzke, Torsten Röhl, and Manfred Milinski. 2013. Intra- and intergenerational discounting in the climate game. Nature Climate Change 3:1025-1028. [1]

[return to top]


Kapheim, Karen M., Peter Nonacs, Adam R. Smith, Robert K. Wayne, William T. Wcislo. 2015. Kinship, parental manipulation and evolutionary origins of eusociality. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 282:20142886; DOI:10.1098/rspb.2014.2886.

To test the mechanisms by which eusociality evolves in the facultatively-social tropical sweat bee, the authors compared the inclusive fitness of workers with females who founded their own nests (in other words, queens). Queens were shown to have higher inclusive fitness than their workers, which suggests that eusociality must be maintained through a combination of high relatedness and maternal manipulation.

Karlsson, Elinor K., Dominic P. Kwiatkowski, and Pardis C. Sabeti. 2015. Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations. Nature Reviews Genetics 15:379-393.

Describes how genome-wide association studies have and can be used to understand how humans have evolved in response to the diseases of our various ancestral environments. Provides a nice primer on how various techniques are used to detect the signature of selection. Also discusses limitations of these techniques for different types of disease-related selective pressures.

Kemper, Kathryn E., Sarah J. Saxton, Sunduimijid Bolormaa, Benjamin J. Hayes, and Michael E. Goddard. 2014. Selection for complex traits leaves little or no classic signatures of selection. BMC Genomics 15:246.

Ingeniously shows that complex traits produced by artificial selection (in this case in dairy cows) do not produce identifiable signatures of selection in the genome, despite the clear phenotype-fitness connection created by artificial selection. Important as a case study demonstrating that a history of strong selection does not necessarily show up using traditional genome-scanning approaches; highlights the importance of understanding the genetic architecture of a trait before looking for selection on that trait.

Kidd, Celeste and Benjamin Y. Hayden. 2015. The Psychology and Neuroscience of Curiosity. Neuron 88:449-460. [1]

Review of various definitions of curiosity, what we know about curious behaviors, and what needs to be studied next. Uses Tinbergen’s four questions as a frame for discussion, which is a valuable approach. Suggests that before we try to rigidly define curiosity we need to explore curious behaviors more thoroughly.

Knafo, Ariel and Shalom H. Schwartz. 2009. Accounting for Parent-Child Value Congruence: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Evidence. Pages 240-268 in Cultural Transmission: Psychological, Developmental, Social, and Methodological Aspects, edited by Ute Schönpflug. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. [1]

This study validates a model of vertical transmission that requires children to both accurately perceive parental values and accept those values in order to adopt the values of their parents.

[return to top]


Lachance, Joseph and Sarah A. Tishkoff. 2013. Population Genomics of Human Adaptation. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 44:123-143.

This review provides a thorough catalog of population genetic approaches that can be applied to genome-wide data sets to detect recent selection. It also reviews examples of where recent selection has been detected.

Lahti, David C., Norman A. Johnson, Beverly C. Ajie, Sarah P. Otto, Andrew P. Hendry, Daniel T. Blumstein, Richard G. Coss, Kathleen Donohue, and Susan A. Foster. 2009. Relaxed selection in the wild. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24:487-496.

This broad review considers the theoretical and actual role played by relaxed selection in evolutionary processes. It provides a conceptual framework for understanding relaxed selection as well as numerous examples of relaxed selection having influenced natural systems. Interestingly, this review reports on no studies of relaxed selection in humans.

Larmuseau, M.H.D., J. Vanoverbeke, A. Van Geystelen, G. Defraene, N. Vanderheyden, K. Matthys, T. Wenseleers, R. Decorte. 2013. Low historical rates of cuckoldry in a Western European human population traced by Y-chromosome and genealogical data. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280:20132400. [1]

Comparing genealogical and surname reports of relatedness to actual Y-chromosome relatedness, this study showed that the levels of extra-pair paternity in a Belgian population are quite low over a four-hundred year period. Rates of extra-pair paternity were estimated at only 1-2% per generation.

Lawson, David W., Susan James, Esther Ngadaya, Bernard Ngowi, Sayoki G. M. Mfinanga, and Monique Borgerhoff Mulder. 2015. No evidence that polygynous marriage is a harmful cultural practice in northern Tanzania. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112:early. [1]

By comparing polygynous and monogamous households experiencing similar ecological challenges, this study shows that the health and wealth of women and children in male-headed polygynous households are actually better than their peers in monogamous households. Polygyny might be a conditional cultural response to harsh environmental conditions rather than the result of sexual conflict.

Le, Stephen and Robert Boyd. 2007. Evolutionary dynamics of the continuous iterated Prisoner’s dilemma. Journal of Theoretical Biology 245:258-267.

Lehmann, Laurent, Marcus W. Feldman, and Kevin R. Foster. 2008. Cultural Transmission Can Inhibit the Evolution of Altruistic Helping. The American Naturalist 172:12-24.

Low, Bobbi S., Ashley Hazel, Nicholas Parker, and Kathleen B. Welch. 2008. Influences on Women’s Reproductive Lives: Unexpected Ecological Underpinnings. Cross-Cultural Research 42:201-219.

[return to top]


MacIver, Corey. 2015. Procreation or Appropriation? Pages 107-128 in Permissible Progeny?: The Morality of Procreation and Parenting, edited by Sarah Hannan, Samantha Brennan, and Richard Vernon. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press.

Makes the argument that parents should be morally responsible for a significant portion of the ecological impacts of their offspring, and therefore that parenting is not a solely personal decision. Because the ecological footprint of parents is so enlarged by their choice to procreate, the author argues that discussing limits on the right to be a parent is warranted.

Mäder, J. A. J. Staehelin, T. Peter, D. Brunner, H. E. Rieder, and W. A. Stahel. 2010. Evidence for the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics 10: 12161-12171. [1]

Mathew, Sarah and Robert Boyd. 2009. When does optional participation allow the evolution of cooperation? Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 276:1167-1174.

Mayr, Ernst. 2001. What Evolution Is. Basic Books (New York). [1]

Milinski, Manfred, Ralf D. Sommerfeld, Hans-Jürgen Krambeck, Floyd A. Reed, and Jochem Marotzke. 2008. The collective-risk social dilemma and the prevention of simulated dangerous climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:2291-2294. [1, 2]

Moscovice, Liza R., Anthony Di Fiore, Catherine Crockford, Dawn M. Kitchen, Roman Wittig, Robert M. Seyfarth, and Dorothy L. Cheney. 2010. Hedging their bets? Male and female chacma baboons form friendships based on likelihood of paternity. Animal Behavior 79:1007-1015.

[return to top]


Nadell, Carey D., Joao B. Xavier, Simon A. Levin, and Kevin R. Foster. 2008. The Evolution of Quorum Sensing in Bacterial Biofilms. PLoS Biology 6:171-179.

Nauck, Bernard. 2009. Intergenerational Transmission, Social Capital, and Interethnic Contact in Immigrant Families. Pages 161-184 in Cultural Transmission: Psychological, Developmental, Social, and Methodological Aspects, edited by Ute Schönpflug. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. [1]

Considers how five different immigrant groups transmit a variety of cultural traits across generations. By measuring the correlation between fathers and sons and between mothers and daughters, this study shows significant differences between different immigrant groups in inter-generational cultural transmission.

Nesse, Randolph M., and George C. Williams. 1994. Why we get sick: the new science of Darwinian medicine. New York: Times Books. [1]

Nisbett, Richard E. and Timothy DeCamp Wilson. 1977. Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes. Psychological Review 84:231-259.

This classic paper reviews the results of numerous experiments in which experimental subjects were unaware of the cognitive processes that produced observed behaviors. The authors suggest that there are very serious limits to our ability to maintain “direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes”.

Nonacs, Peter and Karen M. Kapheim. 2007. Social heterosis and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20:2253-2265. [1]

Nonacs, Peter and Karen M. Kapheim. 2008. Social heterosis and the maintenance of genetic diversity at the genome level. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21:631-635. [1]

Nowak, Martin A., Robert M. May, and Karl Sigmund. 1995. The Arithmetics of Mutual HelpScientific American July:76-81. [1]

Nowak, Martin A. 2006. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation. Science 314:1560-1563. [1, 2, 3, 4]

Nowak, Martin A., Corina E. Tarnita, and Edward O. Wilson. 2010. The Evolution of Eusociality. Nature 466:1057-1062. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

[return to top]


Currently there are no works cited with a lead author whose last name starts with “O”.

[return to top]


Park, Justin H. 2007. Persistent Misunderstandings of Inclusive Fitness and Kin Selection: Their Ubiquitous Appearance in Social Psychology Textbooks. Evolutionary Psychology 5:860-873. [1]

Pritchard, Jonathan K. 2010. How we are evolving. Scientific American October:40-47. [1]

Popular science review of data on human genomics showing that regional populations have experienced relatively few selective sweeps. Selection does not appear to have caused rapid genetic differentiation in geographically-distinct populations. This could be because we have mostly used culture rather than biology to survive in novel environments, but also may indicate that human evolution is more complex. We may have been subject to selection on complex traits, but we lack sufficient understanding of genetic architecture to detect selection on polygenic traits.

[return to top]


Queller, David C. 1992. A general model for kin selection. Evolution 46:376-380.

Queller, David C. 1996. The measurement and meaning of inclusive fitness. Animal Behaviour 51: 229-232.

[return to top]


Ranciaro, Alessia, Michael C. Campbell, Jibril B. Hirbo, Wen-Ya Ko, Alain Froment, Paolo Anagnostou, Maritha J. Kotze, Muntaser Ibrahim, Thomas Nyambo, Sabah A. Omar, and Sarah A. Tishkoff. 2014. Genetic Origins of Lactase Persistence and the Spread of Pastoralism in Africa. The American Journal of Human Genetics 94, 496–510.

Uses genomic data and phenotype assessment to identify variants associated with latase persistence and show that these variants have been under strong recent positive selection in African pastoralist populations.

Rand, David G. and Martin A. Nowak. 2011. The evolution of antisocial punishment in optional public goods games. Nature Communications 2:434. [1, 2]

Ratcliff, William C., R. Ford Denison, Mark Borrello, and Michael Travisano. Experimental evolution of multicellularity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109:1595–1600, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1115323109. [1]

Ricardo, Alonso and Jack W. Szostak. 2009. Origin of Life on Earth. Scientific American 301(3):54-61.]

Richerson, Peter J. and Robert Boyd. 2005. Not by Genes Alone: How culture transformed human evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

An important, accessible book laying out Richerson and Boyd’s theories of cultural evolution, which emphasize the coevolution of genes and culture rather than cultural evolution on a more fixed genetic platform for social behavior. Provides a broad argument for treating cultural change as an evolutionary process but not for the more narrow “genetics-memetics” analogy.

Richerson, Peter J. and Robert Boyd. 2008. Migration: An engine for social change. Nature 456:877.

Richerson, Peter J., Robert Boyd, and Joseph Henrich. 2010. Gene-culture coevolution in the age of genomics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8985-8992.

A broad review of cultural evolution as defined by these authors (based on “population thinking” rather than a strict meme-gene analogy). Provides an overview of the nature of cultural evolution as well as its emergence in the human species. Links the new genomics revolution and what it can tell us about past human populations and the selective pressures they experienced with the many un-answered questions of cultural evolution.  Reviews some of the population genetics tools used to detect past selection and discusses some potential patterns of selection that might be detected by these tools.

Rockenbach, Bettina, and Manfred Milinski. 2006. The efficient interaction of indirect reciprocity and costly punishment. Nature 444:718–723. [1]

Using university undergraduate students as the test population, this study showed that cooperation in a public goods game was greatest when a combination of costly punishment and reputation were incorporated into interactions.

Rockström, Johan, Will Steffen, Kevin Noone, Åsa Persson, F. Stuart Chapin III, Eric F. Lambin, Timothy M. Lenton, Marten Scheffer, Carl Folke, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Björn Nykvist, Cynthia A. de Wit, Terry Hughes, Sander van der Leeuw, Henning Rodhe, Sverker Sörlin, Peter K. Snyder, Robert Costanza, Uno Svedin, Malin Falkenmark, Louise Karlberg, Robert W. Corell, Victoria J. Fabry, James Hansen, Brian Walker, Diana Liverman, Katherine Richardson, Paul Crutzen, and Jonathan A. Foley. 2009. A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461:472-475. [1, 2]

This article introduced the work of a large collaborative group of scientists who defined both categories and current impact levels for “planetary boundaries”, limits of sustainable human impacts.

Ross, Cody T., and Peter J. Richerson. 2014. New frontiers in the study of human cultural and genetic evolution. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 29:103-109.

Reviews how our understanding of recent human genetic evolution relates to our cultural evolution, making a convincing case that all recent human evolution is at least partially connected to culture. Contains one of the most simple and clear diagrams I have seen depicting how phenotypes interact with genes, culture, and the environment.

Roughgarden, Joan. 2009. Evolution’s Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. University of California Press.

Rubenstein, Dustin R. 2007. Female extrapair mate choice in a cooperative breeder: trading sex for help and increasing offspring heterozygosity. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 274:1895-1903.

Rubenstein, Dustin R., and Irby J. Lovette. 2007. Temporal Environmental Variability Drives the Evolution of Cooperative Breeding in Birds. Current Biology 17:1414-1419.

Ryan, Christopher, and Cacilda Jethá. 2010. Sex at dawn: the prehistoric origins of modern sexuality. New York: Harper. [1]

[return to top]


Sablosky, Roy. 2014. Does religion foster generosity? The Social Science Journal 51:545-555.

This review paper argues that studies purporting to demonstrate a correlation between religiosity and generosity are methodologically flawed and therefore invalid. Because these studies rely on self-reporting of behavior, employ a poorly-defined criteria for gauging religiosity, and ignore that the religiously observant are a select group, their conclusion that religion fosters generosity is at best unsupported if not wrong. Experimental behavioral studies provide evidence that the generosity of religious people may not be greater than the generosity of those without religious affiliation.

Sachs, Joel L. 2006. Cooperation within and among species. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19:1415-1418.

Sachs, Joel L. 2008. Resolving the first steps to multicellularity. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23:245-248.

Sachs, Joel L., M. O. Ehinger, and Ellen L. Simms. 2010. Origins of cheating and loss of symbiosis in wild Bradyrhizobium. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23:1075-1089.

Sachs, Joel L., Ulrich G. Mueller, Thomas P. Wilcox, and James J. Bull. 2004. The Evolution of Cooperation. The Quarterly Review of Biology 79:135-160.

Sachs, Joel L., James E. Russell, Yifan E. Lii, Kameron C. Black, and Akshay S. Patil. 2010. Host control over infection and proliferation of a cheater symbiont. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23:1919-1927.

Sachs, Joel L. and Dustin R. Rubenstein. 2007. The evolution of cooperative breeding; is there cheating?. Behavioral Processes 76:131-137.

Sachs, Joel L. and Ellen L. Simms. 2006. Pathways to mutualism breakdown. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:585-592.

Sachs, Joel L. and Ellen L. Simms. 2008. The origins of uncooperative rhizobia. Oikos 117:961-966.

Saxton, Tamsin K., Lauren L. Mackey, Kristofor McCarty, and Nick Neave. 2015. A lover or a fighter? Opposing sexual selection pressures on men’s vocal pitch and facial hair. Behavioral Ecology doi:10.1093/beheco/arv178. [1]

When presented with male models with different amounts of facial hair and different modulated voice pitches, both males and females were shown to value the attractiveness of slightly lower (but not absolutely lower) voice pitches but had no preference for different levels of facial hair. But when asked to assess the perceived dominance of these same models, both males and females consistently ranked men with the deepest voices and most abundant facial hair as most dominant. this suggests that facial hair and voice depth may not be traits that are exclusively sexually selected: social selection may play a larger role in why men have these traits.

Scheinfeldt, Laura B. and Sarah A. Tishkoff. 2013. Recent human adaptation: genomic approaches, interpretation and insights. Nature Reviews Genetics 14:692-702. [1]

A valuable and comprehensive review of what we know about the genetic basis of recent human adaptation, how we know it, and what needs to be done to expand what we know. A nice emphasis on the need to move beyond considering just the “low hanging fruit” of extreme rare traits that are influences by one or just a few genes.

Seyfarth, Robert M. and Dorthy L. Cheney. 2003. Signalers and Receivers in Animal Communication. Annual Review of Psychology 54:145-173.

Schönpflug, Ute, editor. 2009a. Cultural Transmission: Psychological, Developmental, Social, and Methodological Aspects. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. [1]

This diverse edited collection reviews the concept and process of cultural transmission from a variety of perspectives (evolutionary, cross-cultural, and intra-cultural). Most of the actual research presented here considers vertical transmission of values from parent to offspring, although other forms of cultural transmission are considered.

Schönpflug, Ute. 2009b. Theory and Research in Cultural Transmission: A Short History. Pages 9-30 in Cultural Transmission: Psychological, Developmental, Social, and Methodological Aspects, edited by Ute Schönpflug. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. [1]

Provides a concise history of the study of cultural transmission, including the contributions of different disciplines including evolutionary biology, animal behavior, sociology, and psychology.

Schönpflug, Ute and Ludwig Bilz. 2009. The Transmission Process: Mechanisms and Contexts. Pages 212-239 in Cultural Transmission: Psychological, Developmental, Social, and Methodological Aspects, edited by Ute Schönpflug. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. [1]

Through a study of father-son value concordance in various Turkish populations, these researchers demonstrated that ccollectivist values tend to be vertically transmitted with far greater fidelity than individualistic values. They also showed that parental styles that were more empathetic tend to lead to greater-fidelity vertical transmission of values than authoritarian parenting styles.

Seyfarth, Robert M. and Dorthy L. Cheney. 2003. Signalers and Receivers in Animal Communication. Annual Review of Psychology 54:145-173.

Seyfarth, Robert M. and Dorthy L. Cheney. 2009. Seeing who we hear and hearing who we see. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:669-670.

Sigmund, Karl, Ernst Fehr, and Martin A. Nowak. 2002. The Economics of Fair PlayScientific American January:82-87. [1]

Silk, Joan B., Jacinta C. Beehner, Thore J. Bergman, Catherine Crockford, Anne L. Engh, Liza R. Moscovice, Roman M. Wittig, Robert M. Seyfarth, and Dorothy L. Cheney. 2009. The benefits of social capital: close social bonds among female baboons enhance offspring survival. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 276:3099-3104.

Silk, Joan B., Jacinta C. Beehner, Thore J. Bergman, Catherine Crockford, Anne L. Engh, Liza R. Moscovice, Roman M. Wittig, Robert M. Seyfarth, and Dorothy L. Cheney. 2010a. Strong and Consistent Social Bonds Enhance the Longevity of Female Baboons. Current Biology 20:1359-1361.

Silk, Joan B., Jacinta C. Beehner, Thore J. Bergman, Catherine Crockford, Anne L. Engh, Liza R. Moscovice, Roman M. Wittig, Robert M. Seyfarth, and Dorothy L. Cheney. 2010b. Female chacma baboons form strong, equitable, and enduring social bonds. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 64:1733-1747.

Six, Bernd, Kristina Geppart, and Ute Schönpflug. 2009. The Intergenerational Transmission of Xenophobia and Rightism in East Germany. Pages 370-390 in Cultural Transmission: Psychological, Developmental, Social, and Methodological Aspects, edited by Ute Schönpflug. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. [1]

Using level of xenophobia as their cultural variant, these researchers showed that vertical transmission of xenophobia is stronger between parents and daughters. They also showed that the likelihood that a child will take on parental xenophobia depends on the other values that the child has accepted.

Smith, Tanya M., Paul Tafforeauc, Donald J. Reidd, Joane Pouech, Vincent Lazzari, John P. Zermeno, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, Anthony J. Olejniczak, Almut Hoffman, Jakov Radovčić, Masrour Makaremi, Michel Toussaint, Chris Stringer, and Jean-Jacques Hublin. 2010. Dental evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern humans and Neanderthals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Online Early Release. [1]

Spinka, Marek, Ruth C. Newberry, and Marc Bekoff. Mammalian Play: Training for the Unexpected. The Quarterly Review of Biology 76:141-168. [1]

Sober, Eliott and David Sloan Wilson. 1998. Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA).

Steffen, Will, Katherine Richardson, Johan Rockström, Sarah E. Cornell, Ingo Fetzer, Elena M. Bennett, Reinette Biggs, Stephen R. Carpenter, Wim de Vries, Cynthia A. de Wit, Carl Folke, Dieter Gerten, Jens Heinke, Georgina M. Mace, Linn M. Persson, Veerabhadran Ramanathan, Belinda Reyers, and Sverker Sörlin. 2015. Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet. Science 347:1259855. DOI: 10.1126/science.1259855 [1]

This is a update to the Rockström et al. 2009 article that defined the original nine “planetary boundaries”. Not only does this article update the current status of human impact in each category, it also renamed two categories and distinguished between “safe”, “uncertain”, and “beyond uncertain” levels of impact.

Steinberg, Laurence. 2008. A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Developmental Review 28:78-106.


Strassmann, Joan E. 2000. Cheaters in bacteria. Nature 406:555-556.

Strassmann, Joan E. 2001. The rarity of multiple mating by females in the social hymenoptera. Insectes sociaux 48: 1-13.

Strassmann, Joan E. 2006 Social Evolution: Early production of deadly males by competing queens. Current Biology 16:R1023-R1024.

Strassmann, Joan E. 2010. Dictyostelium, the social amoeba. In: Breed M.D. and Moore J., (eds.) Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, vol 1. pp 513-519. Oxford: Academic Press.

Strassmann, J. E., and D. C. Queller. 2007. Insect societies as divided organisms: The complexities of purpose and cross-purpose. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:8619-8626. [1]

Strassmann, Joan E. and David C. Queller. 2010. The social organism: Congresses, parties, and committees. Evolution 64: 605-616.

Stulp, Gert, Louise Barrett, Felix C. Tropf, Melinda Mills. 2015. Does natural selection favour taller stature among the tallest people on earth? Proceedings of the Royal Society Biology 282:20150211. [1]

This paper analyzed demographic and trait data for more than 90,000 Dutch men and women born 1935-1967 to show a statistically-significant but small effect size of height on reproductive fitness. The effect of men’s height — even after being controlled for sociocultural variation — was nearly twice that of women’s height, although both taller men and taller women had more surviving offspring.

Suvilehto, Juulia T., Enrico Glerean, Robin I. M. Dunbar, Riitta Hari, and Lauri Nummenmaa. 2015. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112:13811-13816. [1]

Using self-reported social contact norms, this study shows that where it is acceptable to touch another person varies with social relationship, at least in the various European populations included in the study.

[return to top]


Takahashi, Makoto, Yoshikazu Ueno, Kazuo Fujita. 2015. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 129:402-411. [1]

Using a comparison of capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters, this paper showed that only monkeys have the ability to infer the impact of their social partners on locally-available resources.

ter Bogt, Tom F. M., Wim W. J. Meeus, Quinten A. W. Raaijmakers, Frits van Wel, and Wilma A. M. Vollebergh. 2009. “Don’t Trust Anyone over 25”: Youth Centrism, Intergenerational Transmission of Political Orientations, and Cultural Change. Pages 419-440 in Cultural Transmission: Psychological, Developmental, Social, and Methodological Aspects, edited by Ute Schönpflug. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. [1]

Looking at two political values — tolerance of alternative lifestyles and equality of income and property — these investigators did find that higher youth centrism did lead to lower congruence with parental values, especially for tolerance of alternative lifestyles. However, even strong youth centrists showed an overall positive correlation of values with their parents, suggesting that youth centrism does not necessarily lead to rebellion against parental values. .

Thébault, Elisa and Colin Fontaine. 2010. Stability of Ecological Communities and the Architecture of Mutualistic and Trophic Networks. Science 329:853-856. [1]

Tishkoff, Sarah A., Floyd A. Reed, Alessia Ranciaro, Benjamin F. Voight, Courtney C. Babbitt, Jesse S. Silverman, Kweli Powell, Holly M. Mortensen, Jibril B. Hirbo, Maha Osman, Muntaser Ibrahim, Sabah A. Omar, Godfrey Lema, Thomas B. Nyambo, Jilur Ghori, Suzannah Bumpstead, Jonathan K. Pritchard, Gregory A. Wray, and Panos Deloukas. 2007. Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe. Nature Genetics 39:31-40.

Tomlinson, Gary. 2015. A Million Years of Music. Brooklyn (NY): Zone Books.

Trivers, Robert L. 1971. The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology 46:35-57. [1, 2]

Trivers, Robert L. 1974. Parent-offspring conflict. American Zoologist 14:247-262. [1]

[return to top]


Uchmański, Janusz and Volker Grimm. 1996. Individual-based modelling in ecology: what makes the difference? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11:437-441.

Uggla, Caroline and Ruth Mace. 2016. Local ecology influences reproductive timing in Northern Ireland independently of individual wealth. Behavioral Ecology 27:158-165.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2015. World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.241.

Report summarizing the major global population demographic trends for 2015. Reports on variation in global fertility as well as general decline in fertility. Provides a variety of data on world human populations and population growth.

Uslucan, Haci-Halil and Urs Fuhrer. 2009. Intergenerational Transmission of Violence. Pages 391-418 in Cultural Transmission: Psychological, Developmental, Social, and Methodological Aspects, edited by Ute Schönpflug. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press.

Looking at the vertical cultural transmission of domestic violence, these researchers found that while abused children were more likely to exhibit violent behaviors themselves, they were even more likely to become the victims of violence. This suggests that for some forms of culture, parental behaviors based on one set of values (“violence is an acceptable means of communicating in a family”) can transmit a different value to offspring (“it is acceptable/normal to be the victim of violence”).

[return to top]


Currently there are no works cited with a lead author whose last name starts with “V”.

[return to top]


Weiss, Kenneth M. and Anne V. Buchanan. 2009. The Mermaid’s Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation in the Making of Living Things. Harvard University Press. [1]

Makes the argument that cooperation rather than competition was at the heart of early genetic evolution. Provides a counter-argument to selfish gene thinking by showing that almost all traits emerge from the complex interaction of numerous gene loci, suggesting that alleles at each loci do not evolve independently.

White, Victoria M., John L. Hopper, Alexander J. Wearing, and David J. Hill. 2003. The role of genes in tobacco smoking during adolescence and young adulthood: a multivariate behaviour genetic investigation. Addiction 98:1087-1100.

Using a longitudinal twin study to look at the heritable nature of smoking behavior, this study discovered that the cultural influence of peers was stronger than the both the cultural and genetic influences of parents.

Wilde, Sandra, Adrian Timpson, Karola Kirsanow, Elke Kaiser, Manfred Kayser, Martina Unterländer, Nina Hollfelder, Inna D. Potekhina, Wolfram Schier, Mark G. Thomas, and Joachim Burger. 2014. Direct evidence for positive selection of skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in Europeans during the last 5,000 y. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111:4832-4837.

Compares archaic and modern DNA sequences to show that genes involved in skin, hair, and eyes have been under positive selection in Europe over a very short time period.

Williams, G.C. 1966. Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.

Williams, George C. 1996. Plan and Purpose in Nature. Trafalgar Square. [1, 2]

Wilson, David Sloan. 2007. Evolution for Everyone: How Darwin’s Theory Can Change the Way We Think About Our Lives. Delacorte Press. [1]

Wilson, David Sloan. 2011. The Neighborhood Project: Using Evolution to Improve My City, One Block at a Time. Little, Brown, & Company. [1]

Wollstein, Andreas and Wolfgang Stephan. 2015. Inferring positive selection in humans from genomic data. Investigative Genetics 6:5.

A review paper explaining how selection can be detected in human genomic data, the limitations to these means of detection, and some of the more prominent examples of documented recent evolution.

Wullschleger, Stan D. and Maya Strahl. 2010. Climate Change: A Controlled Experiment. Scientific American. 302(3): 78-83.

[return to top]


Xavier, Joao B. and Kevin R. Foster. 2007. Cooperation and conflict in microbial biofilms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:876-881.

[return to top]


Currently there are no works cited with a lead author whose last name starts with “Y”.

[return to top]


Zhang, Ge, Louis J. Muglia, Ranajit Chakraborty, Joshua M. Akey, and Scott M. Williams. 2013. Signatures of natural selection on genetic variants affecting complex human traits. Applied & Translational Genomics 2:78–94.

An important genomic study looking for signatures of selection on complex traits produced by standing variation. Demonstrates that this sort of selection had a broad impact on the human genome, and that for particular traits (height and urate level) there is strong genomic evidence that these traits were the primary target of selection.

Zimmer, Carl. 2008. The Search for Intelligence. Scientific American October p. 68-75.